Under the legal doctrine of sovereign immunity, the government cannot be sued without its permission. Sovereign immunity protects the federal government, state and local governments, and government agencies from personal injury lawsuits. However, most governments (including the federal government) have passed laws that waive their sovereign immunity under certain circumstances.
Under the common law, a person who has sexual relations with a female child is liable to the child's parent for damages. The tort action is based on the parent's lack of consent. Damages are based on the parent's loss of services or the medical expenses that the parent incurred on behalf of the child as a result of the sexual relations. Although these types of cases are quite rare and some states have abolished actions for these types of cases, there are still some states in which the cause of action may be maintained.
The federal Teacher Protection Act (TPA) preempts state laws to the extent that such laws are inconsistent with the provisions of the TPA. However, the TPA does not preempt state laws that provide additional protection from liability to school employees.
The Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) applies to claims for personal injury caused by the negligence of a federal government employee who is acting within the scope of his or her employment, under circumstances where a private person would be liable under state law. Therefore, in order for the FTCA to apply, the employee's negligence must occur within the scope of his or her employment. Generally, a federal government employee is acting within the scope of his or her employment if the employee is engaged in an authorized activity that serves a governmental purpose.
Federal law does not require air carriers to provide medical assistance to passengers.